Wood Processing

SAWMILLING

Sawing of the log is achieved by the use of a bandsaw or a circular saw with a second saw mounted vertically above the first in the event of sawing large diameter logs. A log carriage conveys the log through the headsaw on which the log may be clamped and turned, so as to enable it to be presented to the headsaw in order to achieve the best sawing pattern.

VENEER SHEETS

Veneer sheets refer to the thin sheets that are sliced off from a rubber wood log by using different processes. Before peeling, the majority of timbers need to be conditioned so as to soften the wood in order to facilitate peeling and to produce an acceptable quality of veneer.

BENT WOOD

Bent wood are those made by wetting wood, then bending it and letting it harden into curved shapes and patterns.In furniture making this method is often used in the production of rocking chairs, cafe chairs, and other light furniture. The process is in widespread use for making casual and informal furniture of all types, particularly seating and table forms.

BIOFUEL WOOD PELLETS

Wood pellets are made from dry sawdust compressed under high pressure and extruded through a die. Some may include a low level of added binder, such as starch, but we use nothing other than steam. Wood pellets should be dry, clean, mechanically robust and have an ash content defined by the appropriate standard to which they have been made, which may also define other contaminants such as chlorine content.

WHY CHOOSE US?

Viable Supply Chain

LIVING NATURE has huge concessions throughout the country and we can guarantee a long term viable supply in this industry.

Product Variety

LIVING NATURE has also evolved into the development of value-added products and downstream processing of wood, which are wood pellets and bent wood etc.

Core Values

LIVING NATURE conducts its business with honesty and integrity. We are reliable and dependable in all aspects of our service.

PROCESSED RUBBER WOOD

Processing of rubber wood essentially include sawing, preservative treatment and kiln drying. The quality control measures of the company starts from the raw wood ensuring its proper maturity and continues in the preservative treatment and computerized controlled seasoning process to make the timber in tune with the ambient conditions.

Processed rubber wood attributes
1. Light colour
2. Attractive grain structure
3. Good strength properties
4. Good working, machining and finishing properties
5. Good staining properties
These make the rubber wood a versatile wood.

SAWMILLING

Log sorting and barking

On arrival at the mill’s storage yard, rubber wood logs are sorted and stored according to diameter, length and end-use, etc. Sufficient quantities are stockpiled to ensure the sawmill’s continuous operation, particularly during adverse weather conditions when log extraction and supply from the forests may be adversely affected.

Debarking of logs is undertaken by mechanical debarkers at the mill site. Before the log is presented to the headrig for breakdown, it is cut to the longest permissible straight length with a cut-off saw, whereupon it is loaded onto the headsaw carriage and positioned in such a manner as to allow the operator to achieve a sawing pattern, which will result in the optimum production of sawn timber with the minimum of waste. The pattern of cut is largely determined by the dimension and condition of the log, as well as the market requirements for the widths and thicknesses of the lumber.

Sawing of the log is achieved by the use of a bandsaw or a circular saw with a second saw mounted vertically above the first in the event of sawing large diameter logs. A log carriage conveys the log through the headsaw on which the log may be clamped and turned, so as to enable it to be presented to the headsaw in order to achieve the best sawing pattern.

Following the headrig, further breakdown of slabs, flitches and cants takes place in the resaw, which enables the wood to be upgraded; thick slabs being sawn into planks and the flitches and cants sawn into planks and boards. The rough round edges of the pieces coming from the headrig and resaws are removed by either a circular saw or chipper edger so as to produce standardized widths as required.

On leaving the headrig, resaw or edger, the lumber is cut to standardized lengths, edges squared and defects removed by the use of one or more fixed or moveable trimming saws, whereupon the lumber proceeds to be sorted and graded.

The sawn and trimmed timber is sorted according to thickness, width, length, quality, grade and species depending on the market requirements; grading is a means to segregate the lumber according to the overall quality, direction of grain, presence of knots and defects, as well as general appearance, etc.
To protect the sawntimber against attack from fungi and insects, as well as to inhibit the tendency of air-dried lumber to check and split, the ends may be brushed either manually or mechanically dipped in a suitably prepared chemical solution. Wax or paint is applied to the end-grain of lumber to be air-dried, either by brush or spraying, so as to act as a sealant in order to bring about a slower drying of the extremities and hence, give rise to a more uniform drying of the lumber.

Preservative Treatment

Due to the absence of heart wood – the durable and usable part of the wood – rubber wood is susceptible to the attack of fungi and insects. Immediately after felling and sawing, to improve the durability of the wood, preservative treatment with suitable preservative chemical is carried out. It is important to say that preservative treatment is meant only for improving the durability. It does not change the anatomical structure, strength, shape or any other property of wood. The structure of the vessels in rubber wood permits easy and effective preservative treatment. Rubber wood belongs to the treatability class ‘B’ and durability class III.
Being naturally non-durable rubberwood would not be economically usable without preservative treatment.
The preservation is carried out by impregnation under pressure and vacuum in cylindrical chambers. In vacuum pressure process, the timber is subjected to an initial vacuum followed by pressure treatment and a final vacuum. In the oscillating pressure and vacuum method the cycle is repeated 10 to 15 times.

Kiln Drying

Rubber Wood belongs to refractoriness to seasoning class ‘B’ of IS:1141-1993. When freshly cut, moisture content of the timber will be above 60 %. For any use, the moisture content has to be reduced to the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) and this is about 12%.
This is for dimensional stability and for obtaining good machining and finishing properties. Rubber Wood contains tension wood and hence seasoning is carried out by our Kiln Dry chambers with utmost care at controlled conditions of temperature & humidity so that the drying takes place uniformly throughout the entire charge. The final moisture content will be 10-12%. The drying time is dependent on the timber thickness.

VENEER SHEETS

Veneer sheets refer to the thin sheets that are sliced off from a rubber wood log by using different processes.
Before peeling, the majority of timbers need to be conditioned so as to soften the wood in order to facilitate peeling and to produce an acceptable quality of veneer. Conditioning involves the exposure of the peeler blocks to both heat and moisture by way of soaking in hot water vats or exposed to live steam or hot water sprays.
Debarking of the logs then takes place so as to facilitate the lathe operator’s task and to remove the dirt and debris which would otherwise prove detrimental to the lathe knife, whereupon the logs are cut to length to fit the lathe, which is normally 240-270 cm.

I. Peeling, reeling and clipping

Veneer sheets are rotary cut, in that the peeler block is rotated around its axis in a lathe, whilst a continuous veneer sheet is cut by a knife mounted parallel to the block’s axis.
The veneer sheet is then wound on spools, or led to a multi-tray system, so as to provide storage and surge capacity in the event of fluctuations in the veneer feed from the lathe; speeds of both storage systems are generally synchronized to that of the lathe.
The green veneer is then clipped to size, either manually or by high-speed knives, graded and stored in piles ready for drying. Any defects, such as knots and splits, are then cut out of the sheet.

II. Veneer drying
The veneer sheets may either be left outside to dry in the air or kiln-dried. Kiln-drying involves the drying of stacked veneer in batches or the continuous drying of sheets. Obviously a controlled drying environment, with minimal handling, will result in a more uniformly dried veneer, with the least amount of damage.

III. Assembly
The assembly of the veneer prior to pressing entails the jointing of the narrow strips of veneer, which are edge-glued so as to make sheets of the required size. Glue is then applied to the inner plies or core, which in turn, are laid between the outer veneers ready for bonding. This operation accounts for a large share of the manual labour employed in the production process.

IV. Pressing
Once the veneers are laid-up as assembly plywood sheets, they are fed into hydraulic presses so as to bring the veneer into direct contact with the adhesive, where the application of heat cures the glue.
The departure from single opening cold presses towards multiple-opening hot presses, with between 5 to 25 daylights and operating at platen temperatures in the order of 80-180°C, has considerably reduced the overall pressing cycle time and increased press capacity. Heating of the platens is generally by hot water or steam.

V. Finishing
Primary finishing, which entails the trimming, sanding and upgrading of the plywood after pressing, is undertaken so as to enhance the marketability of the product. It is carried out at either separate work stations as a combined operation in a continuous semi-automatic line.
Trimming saws cut the plywood boards to the required size, which are then sanded in machines fitted with wide-belt or drum sanders so as to obtain the desired surface smoothness. Damage or imperfections to the face veneers are then manually repaired by plugging and the application of patches.